Optical Spectroscopy with
Basics - Building Blocks - Systems - Applications
Basics 3: Common Configurations of
Monochromator and Spectrograph Systems
Please note: The content
of the BASICS pages is available in printed shape since June 2014:
"Fundamentals of dispersive optical Spectrometers",
SPIE-Monograph, ISBN No.: 9780819498243
The internet pages have been reduced to the headlines, equations, and figures of the different chapters . We hope, that the brief collection and the complete and extended book will be as helpful and useful for you, as the spectra-magic.de/Basics have been.
If you want to be linked directly to the ordering page of SPIE, please click here!
Aim of the “Fundamentals” is to help starters with the definition and verification of the instrumentation for optical spectroscopy. Experienced spectroscopists and expert physicists will know some of the issues better and in deeper detail. But hopefully, every reader may find things worth mentioning.
3.0.1 Overlook, Conversion Factors, Equations
3.0.2 This site consists of 4 parts:
1) the spectrometer configurations of single and multiple stage systems,
2) Echelle spectrometer configurations,
3) basic Prism spectrometers,
4) basic transmission spectrometers.
3.1.0 Introduction and Nomenclature
3.1.1 Beam travel versions of flexible Spectrometers
3.1.1 Beam configuration of Ebert-Fastie or Czerny-Turner spectrometers
Graph 51: Czerny-Turner, the grating turns towards the entrance. In an Ebert-Fastie the rays travel similar.
Graph 52: Czerny-Turner, the grating turns towards the exit. In an Ebert-Fastie the rays travel similar.
3.1.2 Beam travel in a (close to) symmetric spectrometer
Graph 53 makes clear, that the field output has a restricted area of full illumination.
Graph 54: The typical intensity distribution over the horizontal width of the field.
3.1.3 Variations of the basic Ebert-Fastie and Czerny-Turner concepts, and multiple gratings mounted versus single gratings
220.127.116.11 the front entrance and exit will be mounted oblique to the wall, as shown in graph 55
Graph 55: General beam travel in an oblique Czerny-Turner spectrometer, also named W configuration.
18.104.22.168 Single grating configuration.
22.214.171.124 Triple grating configuration, version to pivot on the centre of the table
126.96.36.199 Triple grating configuration, version to pivot on the centre of the active grating surface
Graph 56: Oblique Czerny-Turner spectrometer with triple grating turret, to pivot on the front surface centre of the active grating.
188.8.131.52 Dual and quadruple grating configurations are also available
184.108.40.206 Crossed beams inside the spectrometer housing
Graph 57: Crossed Ebert-Fastie.
3.1.4 The output wavelength as function of the source position.
3.1.5 The output dispersion as function of the lateral position in the field output
Graph 58 displays four typical dispersion curves,
3.1.6 Output dispersion and fidelity, as function of the tilt angle of the field output
Graph 59 shows typical signal shapes.
3.1.7 The magnification of the transferred image in systems with non-uniform focal length or aperture
Graph 60 explains the relations between focal length (F), used width (or area W) and the reproduction size of an image. F/W is the aperture n.
3.2.0 Multiple Stage Spectrometers
3.2.1 Basic Considerations on Double Spectrometers
220.127.116.11 Additive Setup
Graph 61: Basic beam travel of a classical Czerny-Turner or Ebert-Fastie double spectrometer for additive use.
18.104.22.168 Subtractive Version
Graph 62: Principal beam travel of subtractive, classical Czerny-Turner double spectrometer.
3.2.2 Modern additive double spectrometers
Graph 63: Flexible Czerny-Turner double spectrometer with triple grating turret.
3.2.3 Subtractive double spectrometers
22.214.171.124 The classical Czerny-Turner double spectrometer with fixed coupling of gratings and additive / subtractive dispersion:
Graph 64, shows a classical double spectrometer with fixed coupling
126.96.36.199 Subtractive double spectrometers with multiple gratings
Graph 65: Asymmetric, subtractive double spectrometer
188.8.131.52 Mechanical Filtering in Double Spectrometers
184.108.40.206 More Configurations of flexible used Double Spectrometers
Graph 66 shows a front-front coupled configuration,
3.2.4 General performance data of double spectrometers, compared to similar single stage systems
Triple Stage Spectrometers
Graph 67: Triple stage spectrometer for additive, subtractive, single, double, and triple stage use
3.3.0 Prism Spectrometer
Graph 69 shows the beam travel in a typical reflecting prism spectrometer.
Graph 70 displays the principle dispersion behaviour of four prism materials.
3.4.0 Transmission Spectrometers
Graph 71 displays a simplified, but realistic, transmission spectrograph.
3.5.0 Echelle Spectrometers
3.5.1 Echelle Monochromators and one-dimensional Spectrographs
Graph 72: Dispersion behaviour of different dispersers, normalized to 1 m focal length, for high resolution measurements.
3.5.2 Setup of a high resolution Echelle spectrometer to work as monochromator and single dimensional spectrograph
Graph 73: Flexibly applicable spectrometer for wide wavelength ranges.
3.5.3 Two-dimensional Echelle Spectrometer for the parallel Recovery of wide Wavelength Ranges at high Resolution
GRAPH 74. Behaviour of the spectral intervals at the CCD detector over the wavelength, and overlap.
GRAPH 75 Vertical beam deflection by the prism und reserve of spatial resolution.
Graph 76 shows a classical Ebert-Fastie spectrometer with 2D function in wide aperture and low aperture configuration.
Graph 77 shows a folded, symmetric 2D Echelle spectrometer.
220.127.116.11 Comparison of Ebert-Fastie and folded Czerny-Turner:
Graph 78: Beam behaviour at the prism and the appearance at the detector.
18.104.22.168 Constructive Precautions.
Hoping, the study of the book Elements of dispersive optical Spectrometers will be of help for you, we remain with special thanks for your interest.
All copyrights on "spectra-magic.de" and "Optical
Spectroscopy with dispersive Spectrometers
Basics - Building Blocks - Systems - Applications " are reserved by
Wilfried Neumann, D-88171 Weiler-Simmerberg.
Status April 2012