Optical Spectroscopy with dispersive Spectrometers
Basics - Building Blocks - Systems - Applications

Basics Chapter 1: Diffraction Gratings

Please note: The content of the BASICS pages is available in printed shape since June 2014:

"Fundamentals of dispersive optical Spectroscopy Systems",
SPIE-Monograph, ISBN No.: 9780819498243

The internet pages have been reduced to the headlines, equations, and figures of the different chapters . We hope, that the brief collection and the complete and extended book will be as helpful and useful for you, as the spectra-magic.de/Basics have been.

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1.0.0 Fundamentals
Aim of the “Fundamentals” is to help starters with the definition and verification of the instrumentation for optical spectroscopy. Experienced spectroscopists and expert physicists will know some of the issues better and in deeper detail. But hopefully, every reader may find things worth mentioning.

1.1.0 Grating functions

 graph 1 - angles at the grating
Graph 1: Parameters of a reflecting diffraction grating  

1.1.1 The Free Spectral Range

1.2.0 The Dispersion of Gratings
graph 2 -  the dispersion formula
Graph 2 with equation F3 explains the calculation of the angular difference of close-by wavelengths, as they leave the grating after dispersion.
graph 3 - resolution by the 10% rule
Graph 3: “Resolution” by the 10% criterion.

1.4.0 Diffraction efficiencies and polarization of standard gratings.

graph 4 - grating efficiencies
Graph 4: General efficiency curves of blazed diffraction gratings.

A look at several kinds of dispersers:
graph 5 - several diperser versions
Graph 5: Different dispersing Elements 
Efficiency behaviour of Echelle gratings

graph 6 - eff. of echelle gratings
Graph 6: Efficiency of an Echelle Grating at four subsequent orders 

1.4.4 Concave and toroidal gratings

1.4.5 Transmission Gratings

1.4.6 The Prism
graph 9 - the Prism in T and R mode
Graph 9: The transmitting and the reflecting prism.

1.5.0 Other features of diffraction gratings 
1.5.1 Polarization Anomaly
graph 7 - Wood´s anomaly
Graph 7 shows some S plane curves adapted from real gratings under Littrow condition.

Grafik 7A: Wood-Beispiel
Graph 7A is an example, how Wood´s Anomaly leads to signal overshot.

1.5.2 Polarization of Echelle gratings
graph 8 - echelle pol.
Graph 8: Polarization and Anomalies of Echelle Gratings 

1.5.3 Scattering effects
1.5.4 Grating Ghosts
1.5.5 Shadowing and Diffusion
1.5.6 Coating

1.6.0 Conclusion

Hoping the study of the book Elements of dispersive optical Spectrometers will be of help for you, we remain with special thanks for your interest.

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Status April 2012