Technical Papers and Application Notes, since 1994,
by Wilfried Neumann
Partly written in German (marked D), and in English (marked E) 

Kalkulation von Signal/Rausch-Verhältnissen und Nachweisgrenzen (D)
practical hints for the calculation of signal/noise in photometric systems, written in German, released in the journal Labor-Praxis 9/94, 2 pages, reprint in German available. 

Spektroskopische Ellipsometrie; Grundlagen, Stand der Technik und Anwendungen (D)
Extended paper (35 pages) on the basics, state of the art, and applications of Spectroscopic Ellipsometry. Co-author: Dr. Jiri Gardavski. Released in the annual Handbook of Optics and Fine Mechanics 1995, pages 51…86, by Schiele & Schöll, Berlin 

Fluoreszenz-Spektrometer mit Erweiterungen für Lichtleiter, NIR, Modulation und Titration (D)
A commercial research grade fluorescence spectrometer was equipped with add-ons for fiberoptic coupling, external spectrometer for CCD and NIR detection, and titration. 6 page report, issued in the journal GIT 10/1997, German version only. 

Der aktuelle Stand der Ramanspektroskopie (D)
Basic paper (25 pages) on the actual technology and instrumental components and systems on Raman spectroscopy. Issued in the annual Handbook of Optics and Fine Mechanics 2000, pages 141…166, by Schiele & Schöll, Berlin. Also released, and split into four chapters, in the journal GIT issues 9/1999, 10/1999, 12/1999 and 3/2000. Only available in German. 

The combination of Microscopy  Imaging with Microscopy Spectroscopy and the Solution of specific Requirements (E)
Application Note on coupling an imaging CCD camera after an imaging spectrometer to an inverted microscope. Pictures show the setup. Test images and spectra are provided, four pages. English version.
Application Note for Roper Scientific GmbH, October 2003 

Acton Research SpectraPro-2500 for quantitative Radiometry between 190 and 620 nm to analyze Light Sources (E)

The Application Note defines the requirements, the technical layout, the instruments and sample results. 6 pages, English version.
Application Note for Roper Scientific, January 2004. 

A Semi Subtractive Double Spectrometer System for high Light throughput and good false light Suppression, set up by two SpectraPro-2357 (E)
This application note deals with a special system, built to illuminate a large sample area with homogeneous light of narrow bandwidth. It includes two 400-W light sources, a subtractive double monochromator with high aperture, working from 190 to 2700 nm. Report with photos and sample spectra. 6 pages, English version.
Application Note for Roper Scientific, July 2004

Spectrometer Systems  (E) 
Company catalogue, including Theory and Basics on Monochromators, Spectrographs, Scanning Systems, Detectors, and Systems, 24 pages, English only, obsolete.
Catalogue of SOPRA SA, SOPRA GmbH, and SOPRA Inc, October 1994


Basics 1: Dispersive Elements: Diffraction Grating and Prism (D,E)
Chapter 1 of the Series Basics of optical Spectroscopy. Includes the functions of different dispersion elements, like diffraction grating (ruled, holografic, Echelle, Echellette), prism, and their calculations. 11 pages.
Internet only:, March 2006


Basics 2: Spectrometer Concepts and Parameters (D,E)
Chapter 2 of the Series Basics of optical Spectroscopy. Contains the pricipal concepts to realize optical spectrometers (monochromators, spectrographs), the driving and cotrolling systems, calculation of aperture, light flux, dispersion, resolution, output behaviour, basics of multi-stage instruments, filtering, etc. 46 pages.
Internet onlys:, November 2006


Basics 3: Configurations of Monochromators and Spectrographs (D,E)
Chapter 3 of the Series Basics of optical Spectroscopy describes the existing set-ups of optical/spectroscopical systems, with examples and calculations. It shows standard grating, Echelle, Prism spectrometers in single and multi-stage configurations, and justifies the key parameters. 33 pages.
Internet only:, September 2007


Basics 4: Detektors for Monochromators and Spectrographs (D,E)
Chapter 4 of the Series Basics of optical Spectroscopy. Here the technical characteristics of single-channel (PMT, diodes for VUV through IR), multi-channel- (array, CCD chain), and matrix detectors (mainly CCD), DC light and modulated principles, read-out methods of storage detectors, imaging systems, intensifiers, electrical filtering, and other parameters. 48 pages.
Internet only:, September 2008


Basics 5: Beleuchtung und optische Kopplung von Monochromators and Spectrographs (D,E)
Chapter 5 of the Series Basics of optical Spectroscopy deals with the characteristics of many kinds of light sources, like lamp, LED, Laser, luminescent areas, and the collection of the light emitted. Calculation of the collected part, the transfer efficiency into and within the spectrometer (system luminosity). Further topics are transfer systems, fibre optic transfer systems, and radiometric principals, calculations, and set-ups.  43 pages.
Internet only:, July 2009


Basics 6: Applications and Measurement Techniques with Monochromators and Spectrographs (D,E)
Chapter 6 of the Series Basics of optical Spectroscopy. This chapter is split-up into 11 descriptions of typical applications. Even a user may not find "his" application perfectly handled, he may get many useful hints to justify the coherences for otimization. Thus, the calibration of wavelength, and intensity is found there, and the topic of stray light either, and its impact and minimization as well. All together make up 126 pages.
Internet only:, February 2012

In case of interest please ask for copies. Thank you for your interrest.

All copyrights on "" and "Optical Spectroscopy with dispersive Spectrometers Basics - Building Blocks - Systems - Applications " are reserved by Wilfried Neumann, D-88171 Weiler-Simmerberg
Status April 2012